Bahrain limestone rock: An Overview

Limestone is a sedimentary rock of mineral calcite that is formed in the beds of seas and lakes. The limestone rock of the Bahrain is noticeably of varying quality. The rocks are found in different colors flaws and have variable rock fabric and the presence
of the vugs on the upper or internal surface of the rock.

The following figure 1 show the example of the limestone rocks with voids. It has been found for the small and evenly distributed vugs that they are beneficial for the limestone rocks and are not always detrimental. These voids may cause a failure when they
occupy a significant part of the rocks’ body and reduce the quality of the rock.

A dramatic amount of rock break down is observed during its placement. This is believed to be due to the fissured and weak quality of the rock. In Bahrain it is common to flatten the surface of the limestone rock to make it more attractive and smooth with
the help of an excavator.

In many areas a drop test has also been conducted to ensure the quality of the rock and to predict the possible effects of the applied stress and strain. However the test is not very reliable and accurate to evaluate the ability of the rock to withstand
extensive shear stress applied by excavator or by dropping onto other rocks during construction.

Lime stone rock

A calcareous rock formed at the bottom of seas due to the accumulation of calcium rich modules is termed as limestone. The main component of the material is calcite (CaCO3).

The rock settles upon organic matters which are usually presented as fossils. High pressure and heat at the bottom of the organic sediment causes a chemical reaction and produce solid limestone. High calcium limestone is common at the location of Askar in
Bahrain. However few areas also found to be rich with dolomite which is magnesium limestone rock.

As in recent decade a large numbers of shore protection services have been carried out in the Kingdom of Bahrain, therefore a large amount of data based on various shear stress tests on the limestone rock is available. The density range of the Bahrain rock
is found to be a good indication for the determination of the overall quality variations of the limestone rock.